Anonymous said: Hi! I'm sorry to bother, but I have a question. I have a friend who looks white (blonde, light skin, green eyes) but was actually born and raised in India by her Hindu parents. She practices Hinduism and only recently moved to the states. She still wears traditional clothing, but the other day she posted a picture of herself in her traditional clothes and got a lot of hate for it, people saying it was cultural appropriation. She's bummed out about it and is now questioning her ethnicity. Help?

yungbrowngawd:

pendere:

stirringwind:

1. All those people screaming cultural appropriation at her are ignoramuses who are basically saying, “Wow, you don’t look like my ill-informed, narrow-minded stereotype of what people from this region actually look like!” and “I actually subscribe to horrible, reductionist stereotypes that Indian people can only have dark hair, skin and eyes. Light hair? Green eyes? European (origin) only!” 

This is gonna be a tad long, because it’s gonna delve into biology and history- and it’s because I hope people realise how artificial the US paradigm of race is. It’s woefully incompetent at understanding the biological diversity of our species because it is a social construct. Modern scientists and historians generally refuse to categorise people on the amount of melanin they have because it’s just reductionist and oversimplistic- what they do is classify people by their geographic origin, linguistic and cultural ties. 

2. India is an EXTREMELY diverse continent. It’s so genetically diverse that the only place more genetically diverse is the African continent, aka, the birthplace of humanity. And this is a big deal. I’ll explain why.

image

Surprise! People inhabiting an extremely large country that has more than 2000 ethnic groups, members of all the world’s religions, been the site of multiple ancient civilisations, been on the major crossroads of human migration and trade for thousands of years come in multiple colours!

  • Presently, the most widely-accepted theory of our origins is the Recent African Origin, or Out of Africa TheoryThis holds that originally, humans first appeared in Africa, thus all of us have African ancestors. All modern non-Africans are descended from much smaller groups of people who migrated out of Africa, anytime from 65,000 to 125,000 years ago. How do scientists know this? By looking at our DNA, in addition to fossil and archaeological records. They discovered that the differences in the DNA of non-African peoples like say, a German a Japanese and a New Zealand Maori was far less than the genetic differences between people from different African ethnic groups. (Somali, Dinka, Yoruba, San, Kikuyu, Luo etc- I’m BARELY scratching the surface)
  • What this meant was that Africa had to be the original, diverse genetic pool where modern humans first appeared. Everybody else outside of Africa today is descended from much smaller groups of people who left Africa at various times- and that ancestral genetic “bottleneck” is why people who appear to have very different heritage (e.g European vs East Asian) actually have far less genetic variation than the various African peoples.
  • So, India being the second most genetically diverse place on this planet is a big deal- it’s basically second only to THE CRADLE OF HUMANITY. That’s why I’m pretty convinced your friend can have blonde hair and green eyes and still be 100% Made in India.

3. Now, the genetics of India itself.

Genetic studies have shown that if you take a modern Indian from any part of India, no matter how dark or fair they are, his or her lineage will consist of mixing from two main ancestral groups. One is the Ancestral Northern Indians (ANI), and the other the Ancestral Southern Indians (ASI). You may have heard of the ancient Indian caste system which put a lot of social pressure that prohibited marrying outside your caste. Caste discrimination is banned today, but old attitudes do persist. However, even this caste rigidity wasn’t so 4000- 2000 years ago. ANI people married ASI pretty freely, so that’s why every modern Indian has heredity from both groups. So, already to start off, you got quite a fair bit of diversity hidden in people’s genes. 

  • And the next interesting part to explain why it IS possible for Indians to have features stereotyped as “European” is because while the ASI seemed to be genetically unique to the Indian subcontinent, the ANI people are genetically related to Middle-Easterns, Europeans and Caucasians (and I mean this not in the sense of “white” as often used in the US, but the actual region of Caucasus, which borders Europe and Asia).
  • You mentioned she looks “white”- and the American-understanding of “white” being hurled at her by those people screaming cultural appropriation are actually ignorantly treating “white” as synonymous with “European-origin”. In reality, it’s completely useless in the realm of biology. Biologically, there is actually no real dichotomy where “European” suddenly ends and “Asia” begins. 

image

  • As I earlier pointed out, well, we’re all kinda related. And it’s not at all earth-shattering that some people from India look like they’re of “European-origin”. Because modern Europeans, Central Asians and the Ancestral Northern Indians are all believed to be descendants of a group of people called the Proto-Indo-Europeans. It’s believed they lived around 6000-7000 years ago. Some modern people that are descended from the Proto-Indo-Europeans are French, Germans, Iranians and Pashtuns (a major ethnic group in Afghanistan).  It’s even been found that Europeans and Indians shared a gene for fair skin from a common ancestor- which is why there ARE people who look like your friend. Naturally, fair skin is just relatively rarer in India vs Europe because more parts of India are located in hotter regions. Therefore, there’s more selection pressure for darker skin which has more melanin to protect from the sun- making fair skin rarer, but still possible. 

image

(This is a map of the Kurgan Hypothesis, which is currently the most popular theory for how the Proto-Indo-Europeans migrated from their homeland to settle Europe, Central Asia, Iran, India and Turkey etc)

  • Saying Indians are descendants of the Proto-Indo-Europeans is NOT the same as saying they’re of “European origin”. For example, think of the Proto-Indo-Europeans as like the “mother” of Europeans, Central Asians and the Ancestral Northern Indians- they’re like “sibling” groups, not descendants. The original Indo-Europeans were not “European” in the modern sense. I am clarifying this because plenty of colonial-era scientific racism tried to attribute ancient India’s achievements to “European who left Europe for India”- you might have heard the phrase “Aryan” thrown around in Nazi Germany, which was used to mean “blonde hair, blue eyes”. Nazi scientists and historians also abused it to explain away the sophistication of non-European civilisations in Ancient Egypt and India. In reality, ”Aryan” is derived from the ancient Sanskrit word “Arya" which means "noble". Sanskrit is an ancient language still used in classical Indian texts, and is of Proto-Indo-European origin. For example, the name of the country “Iran” actually means “land of the Aryans”- it was the names ancient Iranians (another people descended from the Proto-Indo-Europeans) gave to what others called the Persian Empire for more than a thousand years before the Third Reich. 

image(Sanskrit manuscript)

  • Furthermore, many languages we often separate as “European” and “Asian” like German, English, French, Italian vs. Hindi, Farsi (Persian), Gujarati, Punjabi, Pashto, Sanskrit etc are ALL classified by linguists as belonging to the same Indo-European language family- which all evolved from the original language the Proto-Indo-Europeans spoke. See how artificial the Europe/Asia dichotomy really is, in terms of human genetics and origin of cultures? 

4. Finally- there’s plenty of modern proof that the region we call Europe today does NOT have a monopoly on producing people with blonde hair, fair skin and green eyes.

This is Aishwarya Rai Bachchan, a popular Indian Bollywood actress who is also known for her striking blue-green eyes. She’s 100% Indian- she was born in Mangalore, India to Indian parents. 

image

This is a couple at their wedding- the lady on the left is Indian, from the Southern Indian city of Hyderabad. Her husband is Ethiopian.image

This is a photo of a boy and a woman who is likely his mother, taken in Turkey.

image

This is a girl from Darfur, Sudan- an area that has more than 30 ethnic groups.

image

This is a Nuristani girl. The Nuristani people are an ethnic group from Afghanistan. 

image

5. And in the first place, what makes up a person’s identity IS NOT JUST HOW MUCH or HOW LITTLE MELANIN THEY HAVE.

  • Tell your friend she is 100% Indian, because what makes up her identity is not just how she looks. Identity is what feels most natural to her, and if that identity is indeed very intertwined with major aspects of Indian culture- then well, she IS Indian and noone can say otherwise. 
  • Those people had no right to make her feel awful and “not-Indian enough” because it’s clear she identifies as such due to actually being born there and also practising major aspects of Indian culture. The best example I can think of to explain this is how in the US, people sometimes use the term “Latino” as a race category, with the stereotype that all latinos must have tanned skin and dark hair. In reality, it’s more of a cultural identity. The are fair haired-latinos and darker-skinned latinos whose ancestors included the African slaves brought to the Americas four hundred years ago. But what really makes them “Latino” or “Hispanic” is their upbringing- growing up in the environment of Latin America, which is culturally a syncretic fusion of Amerindian, African, Spanish, Portuguese and other European influences. 

image

(This is the Brazilian football team that won the 1970 World Cup- you can see Pelé- second from the bottom right. He is an Afro-Brazilian. If you look at his teammates, you can see how latinos come in ALL COLOURS.)

6. Your friend should not be questioning her identity, but those people attacking her should be questioning their utterly myopic worldview. The history of human genetics and migrations makes it abundantly clear how DIVERSE India is- so it’s perfectly possible for her to be Indian but have blonde hair and green eyes, even if it may be less common. 

7. On a more general note, I cannot stress this enough to everyone- DO NOT GO AROUND ATTACKING PEOPLE for “cultural appropriation” when you are NOT even from that culture in question and/or don’t actually know in detail the history and genetics of that region.

  • If you suspect cultural appropriation: DO YOUR RESEARCH FIRST or ASK SOMEBODY you know who actually belongs to that group. You may be attacking mixed-race people or people like the anon’s friend, who simply has features that are less genetically dominant- blonde hair shows up less easily in countries with a bigger pool of people with dark hair because dark hair is dominant. Even if her parents had dark hair, it’s possible they both carried a recessive gene for blonde hair that was suppressed by their dark-hair gene. Their child would be blonde if she happened to get both copies of the blonde gene instead of the dark hair gene.
  • Also, even if you think the person isn’t of that group, please bear in mind they might have been invited to dress in that clothing by a friend, or because they’re at an event. (I.e let’s say, at an Indian wedding)
  • I can’t stress how infuriating this “white knight” complex is. Speaking as someone pretty familiar with colonialism, I’ve had people who didn’t grow up in my culture condescendingly insist that if I’m okay with somebody doing something from my culture, it’s “self-internalised oppression”. I’ve studied African colonial literature, and the way people insist on defining what people should be alright with is very reminiscent of 19th century imperialists high-handedly saying, “oh, we have to bring the light of civilisation to save those backwards colonial subjects from themselves!”

image

This is Reese Witherspoon, wearing a kimono in Japan, where she is being taught by JAPANESE people how to perform the traditional tea ceremony. This is not reducing a culture to a caricature because she’s actually learning stuff respectfully and wearing a bona fide kimono.

  • Fighting against cultural appropriation is to prevent cultures from being cheapened, made into jokes, sexual fetishes or ugly caricatures. Part of returning power to people to define themselves is ALSO by allowing them to set the parameters of what they want to share with others- and many cultures are perfectly willing to share aspects that are non-sacred or do not have to be earned. So, for example, do not go around insisting a Japanese person should not be allowed to teach non-Japanese people to wear a kimono- because a kimono, unlike a Navajo war bonnet (akin to veteran’s medals), is something anybody can wear. Recognise this difference.

Know the difference.

Very long p cool post

amazighprincex:

[Image: a series of tweets by justified agitator (@Awkward_Duck) on August 19, 2014.

1:23 AM: We literally laid in someone’s backyard for what seemed like an eternity while tanks rolled down the streets #Ferguson

1:26 AM: I’m live tweeting because there’s a media blackout. #Ferguson

1:33 AM: I’m so shaken. They’re literally just rolling around throwing tear gas into neighborhoods-not aggressive crowds. #Ferguson

1:34 AM: I was pouring milk over one guys eyes when they came back around and threw another at us. #Ferguson

1:51 AM: Let me repeat, THEY ARE GASSING NEIGHBORHOODS not crowds of protestors.There was only a few of us walking. there is no curfew, so why?]

(via shutupanddiehl)

stratoc:

howtotrainyourdragenz:

the-perks-of-being-a-fangirl2:

and-love-me-for-eternity:

Woahhh there book, calm down.

Nope. Not okay.

you guys do realize this is probably what a certain Night Fury was thinking during a certain point in httyd 2

can you NOT

stratoc:

howtotrainyourdragenz:

the-perks-of-being-a-fangirl2:

and-love-me-for-eternity:

Woahhh there book, calm down.

Nope. Not okay.

you guys do realize this is probably what a certain Night Fury was thinking during a certain point in httyd 2

can you NOT

(via frosty-viking)

theserenesupreme:

batmanisagatewaydrug:

Now that’s what I call justice 

Finally

Thank. You.

(via ryuutsu)

yasminetarek:

بلال من بلجيكا..أصابه الله بالسرطان بعد إسلامه فاعتبر المرض علامة الرضا والقبول من الله

الله :)

This … sounds nice but I find it very naive. It’s an argument that assumes that, in the end, suffering pays off when, really, not everything ends well. People get sick and and don’t get better. People suffer mental breakdowns and never recover. People die in pain. I’d like to think that that’s all for a higher purpose but I fail to see that optimism reflected in reality.

(Source: buthaina74, via allah-is-love)

cleaning-up-blood said: sorry i took so long to reply. i've been really pretty out of it. hopefully i'll die soon. sorry. thank you for being so nice and telling me happy shit and about you <3

Any time. I don’t want you to die but I’m glad I could help even a little bit.

The day Frigga met Loki

thetrekkiehasthephonebox:

immodest-lady:

p0kemina:

I’m going to make a youtube video entitled

"Shit ALL men say”

and it will consist only of the phrase “But not all men say that~!!”

And then I’ll wait for men to stare at their keyboards in utter distress as they contemplate the paradox of their intense desire and desperation to inform me that not all men say that.

I will break them.

Someone please legit do this. Become my hero.

OP - Have you made this yet?

Somebody please PLEASE explain this to me. I sincerely do not understand what is wrong with men not wanting to be generalized or implicitly roped together with other men who say things they disagree with. Please someone help me out here.

(via lindsayetumbls)

theskieswillfall:

lolbitches:

onedumbjoke:

blackmailedmyself:

nymphamortem:

faineemae:

flyingmintbunny0:

asexualveganmystic:

dorkinthefreakkingdom:

faineemae:

if i had a dollar…

If I had a brick

sorry if I’m off topic but I’m so sick of people characterizing violent crime as “musta been mental illness” it throws us mentally ill people under the bus by perpetuating the stereotype that we’re dangerous

cant we just say there was something going on with that one guy?

ur totally right, many men don’t react violently when faced with rejection.
it was only this one guy.












And that’s why I will forever spite anyone who judges women for lying about having a boyfriend or being gay to avoid just plain out rejecting men.
Even that can get us violence, the girl talked about in the tweet actually HAD a boyfriend.

It’s not right to excuse it as mental illness, but that doesn’t mean that it’s fair to generalize men that way. Many men do it, and I don’t think it’s wrong for women to lie to avoid these situations, but you don’t get a free pass to say “why do all men feel so entitled?” The right questions would be “why does society put men in a position to feel entitled? Why do so many men feel this entitled? How can we stop men from feeling entitled?”

nah I’m gonna stick with “why do [all] men feel so entitled” thanks

Maybe I can put this in terms people can understand: There are only an average of 19 shark attacks in the US per year, only one being fatal. Not all sharks are going to attack you if you run into them, but if you see one nearby while you’re swimming? I’d be willing to bet that you’re going to get the fuck out of the water just in case.

perfect example^. most women cannot afford to give men the benefit of the doubt, for fear of all of the above happening.



You guys realize that most of this discussion has been about justifying generalizations, right? What good has ever come from that? Comparing men to sharks implies that men can never HELP women or be PARTNERS with them. At best, they are distant, detached animals. I like what BlackMailedMyself said. Why don&#8217;t we spend this energy discussing why SOME men feel so entitled and brainstorming how we can address that problem? Generalizing only hurts our cause.

theskieswillfall:

lolbitches:

onedumbjoke:

blackmailedmyself:

nymphamortem:

faineemae:

flyingmintbunny0:

asexualveganmystic:

dorkinthefreakkingdom:

faineemae:

if i had a dollar…

If I had a brick

sorry if I’m off topic but I’m so sick of people characterizing violent crime as “musta been mental illness” it throws us mentally ill people under the bus by perpetuating the stereotype that we’re dangerous

cant we just say there was something going on with that one guy?

ur totally right, many men don’t react violently when faced with rejection.

it was only this one guy.

And that’s why I will forever spite anyone who judges women for lying about having a boyfriend or being gay to avoid just plain out rejecting men.

Even that can get us violence, the girl talked about in the tweet actually HAD a boyfriend.

It’s not right to excuse it as mental illness, but that doesn’t mean that it’s fair to generalize men that way. Many men do it, and I don’t think it’s wrong for women to lie to avoid these situations, but you don’t get a free pass to say “why do all men feel so entitled?” The right questions would be “why does society put men in a position to feel entitled? Why do so many men feel this entitled? How can we stop men from feeling entitled?”

nah I’m gonna stick with “why do [all] men feel so entitled” thanks

Maybe I can put this in terms people can understand:

There are only an average of 19 shark attacks in the US per year, only one being fatal. Not all sharks are going to attack you if you run into them, but if you see one nearby while you’re swimming? I’d be willing to bet that you’re going to get the fuck out of the water just in case.

perfect example^. most women cannot afford to give men the benefit of the doubt, for fear of all of the above happening.

You guys realize that most of this discussion has been about justifying generalizations, right? What good has ever come from that? Comparing men to sharks implies that men can never HELP women or be PARTNERS with them. At best, they are distant, detached animals. I like what BlackMailedMyself said. Why don’t we spend this energy discussing why SOME men feel so entitled and brainstorming how we can address that problem? Generalizing only hurts our cause.

(via faineemae)

Written by an Indian woman fyi